Wednesday, May 20, 2020
A serious social problem in modern American society is child abuse. There have been widespread reports of infanticide, mutilation, abandonment, and other forms of physical and sexual violence against children (Moylan, 2010). When a child is abused, a non-accidental injury is inflicted, or permitted to be imparted, by the person accountable for the childs care, regardless of reason (Durfour, 2011). This may include any form of injury, including undernourishment, sexual molestation, emotional maltreatment, cruel punishment or deprivation of necessities (Holt, 2011). According to the World Health Organization, there were an estimated 27,000 child victims of homicide in the year 2009. Many child deaths, however, are not routinely investigated or autopsied, making it difficult to know the true extent of the problem. Deaths are the only the aftermath that the public becomes aware of when it is too late to help, while there are millions of children who are victims of non-fatal abuse and neg lect. In some studies, between one quarter and one half of children in the United States report severe and frequent physical abuse, including being beaten, kicked or tied up by parents (Renner, 2012). Data recorded by the World Health Organization suggests that about 20 percent of women and 5-10 percent of men suffered sexual abuse as children. Physical abuse, sexual abuse or neglect depends mostly on the childs age and sex. Younger children are most at risk for physical abuse, while theShow MoreRelated We Must Stop Child Abuse and Neglect Essay961 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesChild abuse is one of the most tragic problems in America today. Each year, over three million American children are beaten, neglected, or sexually abused by their parents or guardians. Infants only a few days old as well as teenagers are subject to child abuse. There are four types of child abuse: physical abuse, physical neglect, sexual abuse, and emotional abuse. Child abuse is a serious problem that plagues Ameri cas youth and must be stopped. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Physical abuse is one form of child abuseRead MoreThe Seriousness of Emotional Deprivation1225 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagessecurity and self-confidence is to be restored. However, if love is minimal and abuse high, the damage will be permanent and the children will suffer emotional impairments for the rest of their lives,Ã¢â¬ said by Mark Z. Danielewski, April 11th, 2014. The issue of child abuse dates all the way back to colonial times in 1809 before organized child protection began. Back in this time child abuse wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t recognized by people as a serious issue so many people were able to kill children without harsh consequenceRead MoreSexual Assault Essay examples1113 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesapproximately 900,000 children who are maltreated each year, 9% are sexually abused. Depending on jurisdiction, sexual assault may include rape, forced vaginal, anal or oral penetration, forced sexual intercourse, inappropriate touching, forced kissing, Child sexual abuse, o r the torture of the victim in a sexual manner. According to the Crime Victim Research and Treatment Center 1.3 adult women are sexually assaulted in the United States every minute. Of these assaults 84% of the attacks occur by someone theRead MoreCauses Of Domestic Violence1285 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesviolence is a serious problem, which occurs in many countries. In recent years, domestic violence has been recognized as a serious problem globally. The only common thing between these problems are that the vast majority of the victims are women. Domestic Violence is a pattern of behavior used to establish power and control over another through emotional, physical, and mental attacks. Domestic violence and child maltreatment are considered not only a worldwide public health problem but also a majorRead MoreNarcotic Epidemic In America Essay1293 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesChou, 2016). The opioid epidemic is a significant issue for nursing on the main respect that there is currently a problem with over- prescribing of narcotics and the millions of people addicted to opioid medications (Centers for Disease Control, 2017Ã¢â¬âb). In the 1990Ã¢â¬â¢s pharmaceutical companies advertised to hospitals and clinics promoting opiates as the definitive solution to AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s search for pain control (Hari, 2017). The result was that many people started taking these drugs and soon foundRead MoreEssay on Alcoholism In The 21st Century1687 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesexcessive or compulsive use of alcoholic drinks. However, this disease is much more complex. Alcohol abuse is a growing problem in the United States today, causing more and more deaths each year. It affects nearly everyone in the U.S. today, either directly or indirectly. Over half of Americans have at least one close relative that has a drinking problem. About 20 million people in the United States abuse alcohol. It is the third leading cause of preventable deaths, and about 100,000 people die each yearRead MoreThe Effects Of Drug Abuse On The United States1717 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesIn an attempt to demonstrate the absurdity of the drug abuse problems in the United States, it should be brought to light that the 2014 National Survey on Drug Use Health estimated that Ã¢â¬Å"27 million people aged 12 or older have used an illicit drug in the past 30 daysÃ¢â¬ (Hedden, Kennet, Lipari, Medley, Tice, 2015). As gun violence has become a popular topic in America over the past few years due to itsÃ¢â¬â¢ related deaths, many AmericansÃ¢â¬â¢ fail to realize that more people are dying from drug overdoseRead More Corporal Punishment Essay528 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pages Using corporal punishment in schools is not benefiting our children. In fact, it may be hurting our children more than helping them, and teaching them the wrong way to deal with their problems. I feel that discipline starts at home, and should not be left for the schools to handle. Corporal punishment may do more harm than good. It quot;has no positive effects that we know ofquot; (Keeshan 67). It may stop the unruly behavior temporarily, but it does not treat the underlying causes (KeeshanRead MoreDrug Abuse Among Teens Essay1323 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagessame time informative. Smoking not only affects a person physically, but mentally as well. However, most people do not know the severe mental damage smoking inflicts since the focus is primarily on the physical effects. Drug abuse is becoming a growing problem among teenagers. According to the National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuses 1999 survey of 2,000 teens, about 14 million teens ages 12 to 17, 60% are at moderate or high risk of substance abuse1. A leading reason for thisRead MoreEffects of Corporal Punishment on Children When Used in the Home1354 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagespunishment and what is abuse is beginning to rise. Corporal punishment has been used as a disciplinary tool for parents throughout all of Americas history (Gershoff, 2002, p. 1). However, the definition of what corporal punishment actually is, is still unclear to some people and parents. In Wendy Walshs essay, Spanker and Nonspankers: Where They Get Information on Spanking, she defines corporal punishment as the use of physical force with the intention of causing a child to experience pain,
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
The degree of auditor responsibility for the detection of fraud has been re-defined repeatedly over the history of audit and is still generating considerable discussion in recent years, at the hand of financial crisis and a number of huge scandals, such as Enron Ã¢â¬â WolrdCom Ã¢â¬â Parmalat Ã¢â¬â Satyam Computer Services, which caused auditing to become headline news, and therefore widened the expectations gap between the audit firms and the public, and raised further questions about the audit value to society. Ã¢â¬Å"In the 19th century, detection of fraud was an audit objective and it the auditor had a duty to report to shareholders all dishonest acts, which had occurred, and which affected the propriety of the contents of the financial statementsÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Numerous surveys in the 1980s have served to underline the significance and extent of fraudulent activities in the corporate sector (Humphrey and Turley, 1993, pp. 39-62). Ã¢â¬Å"The auditor has a duty to search for fraud and is expected to detect fraud by the exercise of professional skill and careÃ¢â¬ (Rittenberg and Schwieger, 2005). As a result of all the recent fraud scandals in large corporations and fraud cases, investors concerns about fraudulent financial reporting has increased and therefore external auditors are getting the blame for not detecting fraud, while audit regulators are put into pressure to meet the public s wants. In response, audit regulators (i.e. (AICPA, IAASB) have published a number of professional fraud standards (SAS No. 1: Ã¢â¬Å"Responsibilities and functions of the independent auditorsÃ¢â¬ ; SAS No. 99: Ã¢â¬Å"Consideration of fraud in a financial statement auditÃ¢â¬ ; and ISA No. 240: Ã¢â¬Å"The auditorÃ¢â¬â¢s responsibilities relating to fraud in an audit of financial statementsÃ¢â¬ ). Nonetheless, the expectation gap remains wide today Ã¢â¬â the overall picture has not changed much and the problem of fraud in audit remains unsolved. Ã¢â¬Å"Estimated typical organisation loses accounts for 5% of revenues each year to fraud. If applied to the 2013
Question: Evaluate how effective the compensation and benefits were at motivating employees and increasing productivity? Answer: Human resource management deals with the most important part of an organization, that is, the most valuable resources of an organization which is considered as the employees of the organization (Banfield Kay, 2012). This specified department provides definite and perfect structure to the firm by providing various services to the specified organization like the human resource managers look after the recruitment and selection process of the firm, provides health and safety to the employees of the specified firm, maintain the relation between the employees, help to avoid organizational conflict and also provide training to the employees. The HR Generalists specially look after the compensation and benefits of the employees (Dessler, 2013). Job satisfaction and the purpose of the job lead to increase in productivity. On the other hand, the factor salary also affects the productivity of a particular organization to a large extent. On the basis on the quantity of the work, the incentives are paid by the managers of the organization. This increases the productivity of the employees to a large extent by working for extra hours, or by working on the week offs. There are various benefits and compensation which can be used as incentives for the employees of an organization with the aim to increase the productivity and also the motivation of the work force. These are bonuses, perks, amenities, education and positive recognition (Mondy Mondy, 2012). The compensation and the benefits affect the productivity and in motivating employees positively. As these benefits affects both the employees and the employers of an organization. The employees generally can experience a peace of mind when the incentives are provided by the employers. This leads to the increase in productivity and also satisfaction as this act served as the protection for their families. Employees can even enjoy additional protection regarding their disability insurance and personal life including replacement of income in the serious event of disability and illness. All these facilities and benefits motivated the employees of the organization. On the other hand, employees can feel the sense of pride regarding their employers and the organization and this make the employees satisfied if all the coverage is received by them (Werner, Schuler Jackson, 2012). Similarly, the employers are also affected by the compensation and the benefits provided to the employees. By providing increased flexibility and benefits to the employees the employers can maintain qualified w orkforce. High risk coverage can be maintained at low costs by providing various benefits to the employees. Thus, compensation leads to reduction in the financial burden of the company. Employee benefits improve the productivity as the employees become more assured about the security of their families and thus perform more effectively. Thus, it can be said that through compensation and benefits the employees of an organization can be motivated positively and thus, the productivity can also be increased. Therefore, effective benefits and compensation are required for the motivation of the employees and these can be better managed and regulated by the human resource managers. References Banfield, P., Kay, R. (2012).Introduction to human resource management. New York: Oxford University Press. Dessler, G. (2013).Human resource management. Boston: Prentice Hall. Mondy, R., Mondy, J. (2012).Human resource management. Boston: Prentice Hall. Werner, S., Schuler, R., Jackson, S. (2012).Human resource management. Australia: South-Western Cengage Learning.
Thursday, April 23, 2020
These two come from very different backgrounds but they use the term in similar ways. Both Machiavellian and Tubas use the word Machiavellian demonstrates that it can be cynical and even violent in its meaning; however, there may still be some virtue. The lives of Outpace and Machiavelli had some striking similarities. Machiavelli was dismissed from politics and then later accused of starting a conspiracy against the prominent Medici family. Outpace experienced a salary loss of power when he was accused of numerous crimes.In addition, they both spent time in jail and lost their positions of power for reasons they believed were unjust. Outpace first encountered The Prince while in Jail and instantly identified with it for obvious reasons. From his song, Hail Mary, he opens with the following line, Machiavelli in this? Calumniate/ All through your body/ it blows like a 12 gage shoots [shot gun] This Is a graphically violent and vivid description of Tubas Interpretation of this word. We will write a custom essay sample on Machiavelli or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page He extends Machiavellian political theory as a Justification to murder. This lyric exemplifies how the word has evolved into one with cynical and even violent connotations. Tubas interpretation at first glance appears to be a far cry from Machiavelli; however, the two are very similar in meaning. In chapter three of The Prince Machiavelli states this: At this point one may note that men must be either pampered or annihilated. Furthermore he states that the first Is to extinguish the ruling family. It Is easy to see how a street sway thug could Interpret these arguments as justification for killing a gang member on the street. The turf that gangsters talk about is the same In its meaning as the territory that Machiavelli describes. Virtue for its own right is shunned by both Outpace and Machiavelli. However, this does not mean that they are devoid of virtue completely. Both Outpace and Machiavelli have virtue although their interpretation Is vastly different than our consensus understanding.Machiavelli states In the dedication that virtue implies physical and mental capacity-intelligence, skill, courage, vigor-in short, all those personal qualities that are needed for attainment of ones own ends. If we apply this to the streets that Outpace grew up on he should be considered virtuous under this definition as well. The thugs on the street attain the means for their own end even if that means breaking the law or murdering to protect their territory.Later n Hall Mary Outpace raps we all wrapped In this hood acting Like thugs Machiavelli demonstrates that the ultimate good is in the interest of the state or individual. Clearly, Outpace and Machiavelli believed that when they acted in Machiavellian way it Nas virtuous. This was not virtue in the same way that Christian thought or Aristotle Moon defined it as some higher good. Both of them sacrifice virtue for its own sake. Ere needs of the individual and state are put above all else. The ends may Justify the means in some instances. However, this is an ethical question has no clear answer as It debated to this very day.
Tuesday, March 17, 2020
Student Rights Student rights policies have changed over the years. Up until the 80Ã¢â¬â¢s student were able to do more then they are now for example, smoking cigarettes was allowed in special rooms in the school building. Children in most schools were allowed to leave without problem for their lunch break but now most schools confined the students to the property and will be punished if they leave. Many students who attend public schools minors and donÃ¢â¬â¢t enjoy the same rights as those of all Americans. Administrators think the discipline is necessary so an incident like Columbine doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t occur again. Civil libertarians wonder if such strict discipline in schools will result in a generation of people who feel like they are trapped in an unfairly targeted Ã¢â¬Å"age-specific police stateÃ¢â¬ . (www.studentrights.com) In more recent years a Ã¢â¬Å"zero-toleranceÃ¢â¬ policy has brought school restrictions to lengths that are thought to be absurd. "Zero-toleranceÃ¢â¬ policy allows no second chance. If your caught doing something against the rules of the school the Ã¢â¬Å"zero-toleranceÃ¢â¬ means that they are immediately kicked out. For example, students have been expelled for giving classmates aspirin because it was having a drug in school. Students have even been expelled for writing scary stories and doing it too successfully. When did our freedom to write our ideas down on paper successfully become an issue? The student rights issues have been broken down into two categories: free speech and privacy/search and seizure. The Ã¢â¬Å"zero-toleranceÃ¢â¬ policy applies to both categories. The spring 2002 edition of the Student Press Law CenterÃ¢â¬â¢s report newsletter states Ã¢â¬Å"High school censorship seems to occur in an ever-growing set of circumstances.Ã¢â¬ (www.studentrights.com) Now there are restrictions on student web sites and student media advisers who have tried to help in the fight for student rights have been rejected. There have even been s... Free Essays on Student Rights Free Essays on Student Rights Student Rights Student rights policies have changed over the years. Up until the 80Ã¢â¬â¢s student were able to do more then they are now for example, smoking cigarettes was allowed in special rooms in the school building. Children in most schools were allowed to leave without problem for their lunch break but now most schools confined the students to the property and will be punished if they leave. Many students who attend public schools minors and donÃ¢â¬â¢t enjoy the same rights as those of all Americans. Administrators think the discipline is necessary so an incident like Columbine doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t occur again. Civil libertarians wonder if such strict discipline in schools will result in a generation of people who feel like they are trapped in an unfairly targeted Ã¢â¬Å"age-specific police stateÃ¢â¬ . (www.studentrights.com) In more recent years a Ã¢â¬Å"zero-toleranceÃ¢â¬ policy has brought school restrictions to lengths that are thought to be absurd. "Zero-toleranceÃ¢â¬ policy allows no second chance. If your caught doing something against the rules of the school the Ã¢â¬Å"zero-toleranceÃ¢â¬ means that they are immediately kicked out. For example, students have been expelled for giving classmates aspirin because it was having a drug in school. Students have even been expelled for writing scary stories and doing it too successfully. When did our freedom to write our ideas down on paper successfully become an issue? The student rights issues have been broken down into two categories: free speech and privacy/search and seizure. The Ã¢â¬Å"zero-toleranceÃ¢â¬ policy applies to both categories. The spring 2002 edition of the Student Press Law CenterÃ¢â¬â¢s report newsletter states Ã¢â¬Å"High school censorship seems to occur in an ever-growing set of circumstances.Ã¢â¬ (www.studentrights.com) Now there are restrictions on student web sites and student media advisers who have tried to help in the fight for student rights have been rejected. There have even been s...
Saturday, February 29, 2020
Binge Eating Disorder Essay For centuries, many psychological disorders had plagued mankind. Humanity has suffered from many psychological disorders such as anxiety disorders, schizophrenia, obsessive-compulsive disorder and many more. One kind of disorder that rose in numbers in the twenty-first century are eating disorders. Eating disorders can be categorized into three types. Theses are anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder. Of the three types of eating disorder, binge eating disorder is more complex when it comes to its symptoms and manifestations. To further understand binge eating disorder, we must first understand what are eating disorders and what factors can affect people who manifest these kinds of disorder. Eating disorders are disorders of eating habits of individuals. According to social-cultural theorist, most eating disorders usually are common in cultures where the thinness of the body is considered attractive and more acceptable (Nolen-Hoeksema, 2006). The factors that affect eating disorders can range from a personÃ¢â¬â¢s culture, environment, his/her family background, genealogy and biological factors. In the three kinds of eating disorder, anorexia nervosa is a disorder where one refuses to eat to become fat. A common practice of anorexic patients is to purge their food when they felt that they had taken a lot of it (Nolen-Hoeksema, 2006). The disorder is deadly and can kill almost 15 percent of its victims (Nolen-Hoeksema, 2006). If anorexia nervosa is self-starvation, bulimia nervosa is binging or eating excessively then purging it through various methods. Now, we focus on binge eating disorder. If the two other eating disorderÃ¢â¬â¢s goal is to keep their body thin and slim. Binge eating disorder is making the body fatter and overweight. The common practice of people with binge eating disorder is eating excessively when they feel anxious about something. They will eat out and eat as much food as they can even if they are not hungry. It sort of becoming their initial reaction to a stressor and becomes a habit (Nolen-Hoeksema, 2006). The big difference in binge eating disorder than bulimia is that binge eating disorder victims donÃ¢â¬â¢t purge (Nolen-Hoeksema, 2006). They donÃ¢â¬â¢t engage in behaviors that will cause them to vomit. Binge sessions of victims are usually habitual and episodic. This means they engage in binging in a particular time. Studies have shown that people who are obese and over weight are common people with binge eating disorder (Nolen-Hoeksema, 2006).. A study showed that 30 percent of people who undergo weight loss programs are actually having binge eating disorder. The peculiarity of this disorder is that even though this disorder is making the people unhealthy and obese, psychologist and health professionals think that having a binge eating disorder is better than having anorexia or bulimia. Usually African Americans are more affected by this disorder than European Americans (Nolen-Hoeksema, 2006). Similar to anorexia and bulimia, binge eating disorder is more common to females (Bierma, 1999). The disorder is associated with many disorders namely depression and anxiety (Nolen-Hoeksema, 2006). People who have binge eating disorder have low self-esteem and want to eliminate their binging. They feel sickened by the thought of being fat and usually tries to undergo weight-loss programs and frequent tries in dieting. The problem is they canÃ¢â¬â¢t stop binging until they sought help from the professional. Binge eating disorder as of today is still not counted as a formal eating disorder in DSM-IV by psychologists (Nolen-Hoeksema, 2006). This is due to the fact that psychologists think more studies should be done to support and sanction the diagnostic of this disorder. The binge eating disorder can be found on the appendix of the DSM-IV for further study (Nolen-Hoeksema, 2006). There are many causes why people get binge eating disorder. Many psychologists can attribute that the rise in eating disorders in our time is mainly due to our social norms (Nolen-Hoeksema, 2006). To further explain binge eating disorder, the factors that triggers this kind of behavior is needed to be understood. The most important fact we must know is that our society today has social pressures and norms. Many cultures put pressure to women to be slim and thin. There are cultural differences throughout the world. In places and time where wealthy people value heavier weight as more beautiful, eating disorder become less likely in the population. People in less developed countries view people with heaviness as beautiful because it shows that the person can afford to buy food and is wealthy (Nolen-Hoeksema, 2006). In America, the rise of fashion magazines that embraces beauty as something slim and skinny in the 90Ã¢â¬â¢s made many American teens more prone to become anorexic. The icons of beauty in a specific era also can predict the trends in eating behaviors in women. The cultural norms of attractiveness also affect people who can get eating disorder like binge eating (Nolen-Hoeksema, 2006). If a person sees that becoming fat and gaining weight can help him achieve his desired level of attractiveness, he will try to eat more in order to gain weight. Another deadly cause of binge eating disorder is that people who suffer from it view food as a way of coping to their negative emotions. In some cases, sexual abuse in the past can also trigger binge eating disorder because it raises the anxiety level of the person (Nolen-Hoeksema, 2006). The cognitive reasoning of an individual also affects the development of binge eating disorder. As we discussed, binge eating disorder is an impulsive behavior. The victims usally act before thinking. This kind of impulse is hard to control and is hard to regulate on its own. Biologically, people who suffer from binge eating disorder might have predisposition to depression (Nolen-Hoeksema, 2006). Depression usually triggers the binge eating session and makes victims more susceptible to binge just to feel good again. Findings also show that irregularity in the hypothalamus in the brain could be a cause of binge eating disorder and other types of eating disorder (Lyness, 2006). Hypothalamus regulates our eating habit and feeling of hunger (Lyness, 2006). This part of the brain is where our body sends a signal if a certain nutrient is insufficient or excessive. Another part of the brain which acts as relay centers of the message our body gives to the brain are neurotransmitters. Serotonin which is an important in cases of depression and anxiety plays a big role in eating disorders. Patterns of binging behaviors can stem from irregularities in serotonin (Nolen-Hoeksema, 2006). Lastly, obesity which is found in most binge eaters is found in the genes (Nolen-Hoeksema, 2006). This means that people are sometimes predisposed to be obese thus making them eat more. Binge eating disorder has many health consequences like gallbladder disorder, high blood pressure, diabetes etc (Unknown, 2005). Binge Eating Disorder. (2016, Aug 07).
Thursday, February 13, 2020
Marketing Module - Assignment Example The organisation selected for this report is Vodafone, a UK based Telecommunications Company that is one of the top players in the global telecommunications market. This report details the macro environment factors, analysis of competitors, customers, markets and type of segmentations Vodafone used in the international arena. Further, it critically evaluates the strategies by using PorterÃ¢â¬â¢s five forces competitive model over Vodafone. Macro Environment Ã¢â¬â PEST Analysis PEST analysis is an important tool for every company because it can provide an outline of the external environment where the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s business is positioned. It can also help in developing the value of the company and form a business strategy. Political Political aspects can affect a companyÃ¢â¬â¢s business in various ways. Every company must abide by the rules and regulations of the country where it operates. The regulations can be the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s law and antiÃ¢â¬âtrust law, which is app licable to all actions of a company. VodafoneÃ¢â¬â¢s major business operations are situated in EU countries. The EU countries passed the Ã¢â¬ËEU Regulatory FrameworkÃ¢â¬â¢ for telecommunications companies in the year 2002. The main objective of this law is to support fair competition in the telecommunications market. Vodafone also has to abide by the Ã¢â¬ËEU Regulatory Framework,Ã¢â¬â¢ which has had great impact on the business of Vodafone. For example, Vodafone was compelled to decrease the Ã¢â¬Ëmobile termination rateÃ¢â¬â¢ because of the law of EU nations (Saplitsa, 2008). Another key aspect of the political environment was the spectrum regulation. The modernisation of spectrum regulations of EU had affected VodafoneÃ¢â¬â¢s business. In 2005, the EU Commission passed a scheme that permits holders to buy and sell spectrum within the telecommunications market and develop coordination among different brands. Due to the new spectrum policy, Vodafone faced risks relate d to the price of spectrum, risk of restitution of existing spectrum and difficulties in licensing (Saplitsa, 2008). Economic Adverse economic changes Ã¢â¬â i.e. a slowdown or recession Ã¢â¬â in any country can result in less demand for existing and new business services. Difficult financial conditions often lead customers to delay any purchasing decisions including those related to telecommunications services. Decreasing their optional spending, people tend to make fewer calls and avoid extras such as data or broadband services. Such decisions in a tough economic environment can severely impact company sales. A country's economic condition as well as peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s purchasing power can be measured by the rate of GDP (Vodafone Limited, 2010). In the year 2009, the economic troubles of three major EU nations (Spain, Italy and Greece) resulted in poor performance of Vodafone and also led to reduction of the termination rates. On the other hand, the financial recovery of norther n EU market helped to reduce the revenue loss of Vodafone from -3.8% in the